Climate Change And Food Security Pdf

The change, assessments of climate change effects on food output demonstrated that cereal producing regions of security remain rather limited. They found that low food security is a result of poor biophysical conditions, low social capital and few opportunities for local non-farm income generating activities.

This framework conceptualizes adaptive capacity as the ability of a person or a community to use their assets or capitals in order to deal with or adapt to changing conditions. Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Structural forces may also affect access to assets.

Food security is a multidimensional phenomenon that reflects a complex interaction of multiple stresses e. This framework conceptualizes vulnerability as the result of the interactions among the threats faced by people to their livelihoods e. Improved economic access to food is an important development goal, but the means of achieving it and the consequences of strategies aimed at its achievement are the subject of much discussion.

For the future, continued technological developments are anticipated to facilitate the adaptation of crops to changing environments. Agriculture, food security, nutrition and the millenium development goals. Livelihood outcomes that are positive in the short term e. Farmers, and particularly migrant farmers whose financial and human capitals are low, partake in food and labor sharing in order to maintain their productivity.

Climate change and food security

They also obtain help from government extension agencies to gain access to drought-resistant crop varieties and indigenous livestock breeds. Misselhorn A What drives food insecurity in southern Africa?

Adoption of the best available agronomic et al. In West Africa, it is expected that rainfall will be more variable and less predictable, which will reduce the length of the growing season.

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However, changes in climate variability with the degree of exposure to stress. Changing climatic conditions could also create a vicious cycle of disease and hunger. Socioeconomic drivers can include demographics, economics, institutions, and policies. Locating genes associated with root morphology and drought avoidance in rice via linkage to molecular markers.

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Adaptation initiatives have consequences sometimes unintended for livelihood outcomes and natural resource outcomes. Vulnerability research directly assesses adaptation by seeking to understand who or what adapts, to what stimuli, and how it occurs Smit et al. For instance, Gregory et al.

Climate change food security and livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa

You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Development of human societies has involved a continuous process of adapting to changing stresses and opportunities. These act upon the components of food systems, which include social, institutional, and ecological activities e. Food systems around the world are changing very rapidly as urbanization and globalization proceed apace.

The practice also results in less weed growth and increases the efficiency of water and fertilizer use. In addition, resource- different scales. Kaag M Ways forward in livelihood research.

Infrastructural constraints included ongoing the adaptation of crops to changing environments. In these analyses, theoretical adaptations are introduced in order to estimate the degree to which impacts might be moderated by widespread adjustments in crops or land use.

Food systems, outlets then, involve much broader considerations than productivity and production alone. This has led to moves in many parts of the world towards intensive systems that are both high yielding and more environmentally benign Gregory c Reducing food system vulnerability et al. The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In some situations, households undertake no adaptation to change Bryan et al. In South Africa and Ethiopia, farmers have noticed increases in temperature and a decrease in rainfall.

Climate change and food security. Vink N Food security and African agriculture. Hesselberg and Yaro demonstrate that Ghanaian households require diverse livelihood strategies in order to reduce their food insecurity. This, and other similar projections, uses a process-based crop production model such as the crop environment resource synthesis family to link climate to plant physiological processes. Climate variation is one of several interacting factors that affect food security.

Such systems encourage the greater efficiency of use of inputs to minimize both on- and off-site environmental consequences but are yet to be widely adopted. This paper explores the relationships among these three fields of research. This growth has been a consequence of three major factors. Agronomic approaches to increasing water use efficiency. Second, regional specialization in food production and regional trade would lower production costs and food prices and, therefore, improve access.

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Climate Impacts on Food Security

While there has been considerable progress in understanding the sensitivities of crop yield to climate change, assessments of climate change effects on food security remain rather limited. While this provides valuable information on possible future yields and production levels under a changing climate, food security also involves issues of food accessibility and utilization. In northern Burkina Faso, farmers mentioned land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than a changing climate, as the main reasons for changing their farming practices. Transformational changes reflect higher-level adjustments in policies, programs, and institutions, or when thresholds are crossed in sociocultural or political economy systems e. Finally, convert rtf pdf free changes in the food system aimed at reducing vulnerability feed back to environmental and societal changes themselves.

Food security, food systems and the link to climate There are several definitions of what constitutes food systems each formulated in relation to a specific range of issues e. Household-level scholarship on food security often draws on livelihood approaches. Maize production during the preceding that affect food security. This offset by the increased C costs of the new production brief summary highlights several ways in which regional system.

The focus of household-level food security research is to study the strategies used by people to achieve food security, whether it be migration Karamba et al. The mix of drivers varied across the region but in all communities many interacting factors resulted in vulnerability to food shortages. Measured water table depths m in Punjab, India Alexandratos, N. Report prepared for the Science Society of America. Structural causes of vulnerability to flood hazard in Pakistan.

Climate change and food security

The framework shows how several research paradigms relate to the issue of food security and climate change and provides a guide for empirical investigations. Paper presented at report, Wallingford, vol. Food security represents one of several livelihood outcomes.

Additionally, some countries that are currently not water stressed are likely to experience stress in the future Niang et al. There are several definitions of what constitutes food systems each formulated in relation to a specific range of issues e. Food availability Food availability often remains the predominant aspect used in food security analysis and measurement.

Vulnerability results from the complex interactions of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers or stressors and the capitals that make up adaptive capacity. The key here was that conditions, which weakened food systems in the region were already in place.