Types Of Hydro Turbines Pdf

Breaking jet Whenever the turbine has to be brought to rest the nozzle is completely closed. Tube Turbine The penstock bends just before or after the runner, allowing a straight line connection to the generator.

To bring the runner to rest in short time, a small nozzle is provided in such a way that it will direct the jet of water on the back of buckets. This is possible by leading the water through a channel with increasing cross section.

Types Of Water Turbines - Waterturbines

For the common turbines types we have a lot more detail on the relevant page in the Hydro Learning Centre, so click the link for more information. The Pelton wheel is among the most efficient types of water turbines. Types of Hydropower Turbines. No longer commonly used except in very large storage hydropower systems, though lots of older, basics of manual testing pdf smaller turbines are in existence and can be restored.

Figure Pelton wheel derives rotation from impulse force produced by the water jet. In simple terms, the Turbine is like Power producing machines.

Well, coming to working of wind turbines, the story remains same as other turbines. Cross-Flow A cross-flow turbine is drum-shaped and uses an elongated, rectangular-section nozzle directed against curved vanes on a cylindrically shaped runner. Reaction turbines are generally used for sites with lower head and higher flows than compared with the impulse turbines.

Pelton A pelton wheel has one or more free jets discharging water into an aerated space and impinging on the buckets of a runner. Runner The runner consists of a hub, a shroud and runner blades connecting them. The cross section through the spiral casing is continuously decreasing, the retardation in cross section causes an equal distribution of water into the guide vane cascade. Once complete, you will understand the site potential and be guided through the next steps to develop your project.

It also regulate the flow of water. For vertical axis Francis turbines the spiral casing is usually embedded in concrete for increased support. Water is admitted only in the forms of jets. Then again after reheating the steam, it is made to flow through low pressure L. Figure Runner of Francis Turbine Unit.

Inner surface of the buckets are polished to reduce frictional resistance to the water jet. Water flow is radial and axial direction to the turbine wheel.

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The dam is constructed on a large river in hilly areas to ensure sufficient water storage at height. The water level in the surge tank rises or falls to reduce the pressure swings in the penstock. This, along with their high efficiency, has made them the most widely used turbine in the world. For high head Francis turbines it is preferred to shape the blade in such a way that the main part of the hydraulic energy is utilized at the beginning of the blade.

Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water pressure potential energy is converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine. Propeller A propeller turbine generally has a runner with three to six blades in which the water contacts all of the blades constantly. This turbine having high efficiency. Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today.

Hydropower Turbine Types - Renewables First

The force produced by airfoil is responsible for lift of aeroplane. When the water leaves the runner, it also helps clean the runner of small debris and pollution. It is therefore usual to have an increased thickness of the blade near the inlet and let the blade get thinner towards the outlet.

Figure Hydroelectric power plant using francis turbine. The cross-flow turbines generally operate at low speeds. Reaction turbines are acted on by water which changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy.

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Water flows from the penstock into the spiral casing. So it is used for power generation.

There is no suction on the down side of the turbine, and the water flows out the bottom of the turbine housing after hitting the runner. The systems may operate in rivers, man-made channels, tidal waters, or ocean currents. Only some amount of the available energy is converted into kinetic energy. You have explained all the things really well.

Similarly if the spear is pushed back out of nozzle, it increases the area of nozzle and discharge increases. Kinetic systems utilize the water stream's natural pathway. Figure Francis turbine connected to a generator.


Firstly, the runner is less expensive to make than a Pelton wheel while it does not need an airtight housing like the Francis turbines. Water completely fills at the passage between the blades and while flowing between the inlet and outlet sections does work on the blades. Generally such turbines are suitable for sites such as dams where they are located between the high pressure water source and the low pressure water exit. They do not require the diversion of water through manmade channels, riverbeds, or pipes, although they might have applications in such conduits. The guide vanes are adjustable and can change the angle depending on the inlet and outlet conditions of the turbine, they are controlled by a governor servo motor.

Types of Hydropower TurbinesHydropower Turbine Types - Renewables First

Picture a boat propeller running in a pipe. In short, the kinetic energy of water gets converted into rotational mechanical energy!

The thickness of the runner blades has to be large enough to withstand the hydraulic forces the blade is exposed to. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The degree of reaction is zero. Thus electricity is generated when one end of turbine shaft is connected to generator! If there is any change in momentum of fluid then a force is generated.

In the hydraulic turbine blades in case of Pelton wheel are provided against the flow of water which change the momentum of it. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Click here to toggle editing of individual sections of the page if possible.

Hydropower Turbines